Turquoise identification

Turquoise is a water-bearing phosphate mineral of copper and aluminum. This jade material has a certain degree of porosity. It directly affects the physical properties of turquoise. The porosity of turquoise causes it to have a certain adsorption capacity, and it is easy to adsorb some dirt, such as dust, cosmetics, liquids, grease, etc., so the color of turquoise is easy to change. The large porosity makes turquoise poor in stability and difficult to polish and cut. Therefore, reducing the porosity of turquoise is the most basic principle of all turquoise optimization methods. The following describes the common and popular turquoise optimization treatment methods on the market in recent years. 1. Glue injection and filling Glue injection is also called potting, adding glue and injection molding. It is generally aimed at low-end turquoise materials, especially those foam pine with large pores that can be used as chalk, that is, surface pine, because these materials cannot be processed and used without glue. Under high pressure conditions, the high molecular polymer, that is, glue, is fully penetrated into the pores of turquoise, which greatly improves the toughness of turquoise, so that subsequent processing can be carried out. Second, dipping filling Dipping is also known as Qinjiao. In recent years, the common processing method on the market echoes the players’ pursuit of raw turquoise. In recent years, the turquoise market has continued to heat up, and people’s awareness of turquoise has also continued to improve, and they have begun to reject the injection of turquoise. This technology of dipping has emerged in this environment. The so-called dipping is to put turquoise in a rubber polymer and soak it under normal temperature and pressure. After a period of time, the glue can penetrate into the shallow pores of the green pine raw material, thereby curing it, facilitating cutting and carving, and greatly improving the yield. This method is generally aimed at medium-quality turquoise raw materials. If this layer of glue is cut and polished during post-production, we still consider the finished product as raw ore at this time. If there is glue residue, it cannot be called raw ore. 3. Partial glue repair After turquoise raw materials are processed into finished products, some turquoise will have some pits on the surface. In order to improve the value of turquoise, common 502 glue is often used to The filling of the pits is usually purely manual operation. After processing, the glue filling place will be visually regarded as a colorless and transparent natural mineral inclusion body, which is very concealed Phenibut Manufacturers . Four. Iron wire fraud Iron wire is a unique feature of turquoise. We often focus on the turquoise matrix itself, and ignoring the iron wire can also be fake. The iron wire mentioned here is not the kind of “fake” decorative iron wire on the market, but an iron wire designed to cover up surface cracks and potholes, thereby increasing the value of turquoise. Master fraudsters can make iron wire very realistic, enough to cover people’s eyes. If it is a chain of bracelets or a few iron wires on a necklace, it is even more difficult to detect, and this is a common method of some unscrupulous merchants. Unfortunately, this is often ignored by buyers who do not understand. . Five, color optimization The color of turquoise has always been a strong focus of people, so color optimization also has its survival conditions. The simple color processing is not stable and easy to decolorize. It has basically been eliminated on the market now, and more complex processing methods on the market. The turquoise is optimized with tinting glue, which guarantees that the green is changed. The color of turquoise also improves the porosity. This treatment makes the color stability of turquoise extremely high. Six. Zakri method This method is named after the scientist who developed this method and has applied for a patent, so there is very little information in this area on the market. The Zakri method is said to replicate the change process of turquoise in the deposit environment, change the microstructure of the sample, do not use organic or inorganic dyes, do not add metal ions, and do not inject glue class. After comparing the treated turquoise and natural turquoise, it is found that Zakri method has made overall treatment for porosity, surface treatment for color, and at the same time surface treatment for overall porosity and color. Zakri method is aimed at mid-to-high-end turquoise, and it has little effect or meaning for low-quality turquoise. This method is called “electrolysis method” and a similar method is imitated by domestic research. Seven, waxing This is a traditional processing technology, which refers to melting the wax at high temperature and soaking turquoise. Different from glue injection and dipping, because it does not strengthen the texture of turquoise, it may not be explicitly stated in the national standard as a treatment method, but it is also an optimization. ——————————————- ————————————— As the so-called “Magic “One foot high and one foot high”, every optimized Phenibut Suppliers turquoise also has its corresponding detection method. The following are divided into categories. 1. The identification of turquoise dipped with glue Let’s start with the most scientific and accurate point of view: Infrared spectroscopy test: in infrared Under spectroscopic conditions, polymer compounds are almost “dead by light” and can be easily distinguished from the spectrum. Refractive index: The refractive index of the injected turquoise is generally lower than 1.6, which can’t reach the refractive index of high-quality turquoise, so it seems that it lacks the high light perception and the feeling of the porcelain surface. Density: The density of turquoise optimized by injection and dipping is low, which contradicts its gorgeous color, because the darker the color of natural pine, the higher the density. Hardness: The hardness of turquoise injection and dipping will be lower than that of natural turquoise of the same grade. It is more prone to scratches and even flakes when it is carved with a blade. The following are the commonly used detection methods in actual situations: Fire: The turquoise treated with glue and dipped with fire will produce a pungent smell, which is the smell of glue melting , The surface will be accompanied by burn marks. Many people, including myself, oppose this approach. It’s just about injecting glue. If it’s true, it’s a big loss. Some people say that the hot acupuncture method is used instead, but the hot acupuncture method does not achieve the desired effect at all, especially Polish the surface after injection. ⑥Color: The market is full of rubberized ring noodles and beads. The color is highly uniform, much like the turquoise produced by the American Sleeping Beauty, but compared to natural raw mineral products of the same quality , The color will appear old-fashioned and dark. But the difference is very small, and it is difficult to judge without considerable experience. ⑦Gloss: The gloss of most glued and dipped products is very dim and unnatural, but there are a few well-crafted products that can achieve glass gloss. ⑧ Water soaking: suitable for low-end turquoise. Soak part of the turquoise in water. After a period of time, check if there is a water line. If there is any indication, it is natural turquoise. But for natural turquoise of high-quality high-porcelain, due to its high density, water molecules are difficult to penetrate, and water lines will not appear. ⑨Hand grip: Natural turquoise will feel sticky when held by hand, but it is only suitable for low-end turquoise. High-qua Phenibut on sale lity turquoise is difficult to distinguish by this method. ⑩High magnification lens: Use a high magnification magnifying glass to observe the surface. The glued turquoise appears fuzzy and distorted due to the glue covering the surface. Many white spots can be seen in the industry. After processing, the boundary structure of the enclosure can be clearly observed. This method is also suitable for replenishing turquoise, just observe the part. Fluorescence reaction of gum turquoiseSecond, the iron wire fake turquoise Identification The detection of iron wire is mainly to observe by magnification. The thickness direction of natural iron wire is irregular and the distribution is natural, while the thickness direction of artificial iron wire is very uniform and rigid. There are also artificial iron wires that are very granular and do not meet the characteristics of natural iron wires. In addition, the location where the wire suddenly thickens is often suspected of fraud. The presence of air bubbles and even transparent iron wires are false iron wires. Legend of iron wire fraud3. Identification of dyed turquoise Dyeing is mainly detected by magnification observation and UV photometer. Dyed turquoise is often distorted in color, and you can see the dye deposits in the pits when you zoom in. An ultraviolet photometer can detect a certain absorption band on the spectrum of the dyed turquoise. The color is distorted, and the concave part is dyed and precipitated4. Zakri process green Identification of turquoise Due to its rigorous scientific nature, the Zakri method does not apply to the turquoise treated with it in laboratory testing methods, but it can still be judged by the following characteristics, but this method also Only suitable for a few experienced turquoise veterans. Color and gloss change: Different from the optimization of glue injection, the surface gloss of turquoise treated by Zakri is not dim, but stronger than natural turquoise of the same quality. When you encounter a high degree of consistency in the gloss and color between the bracelets and necklaces, and you can’t judge there are other problems, you should consider Zakri, because the possibility of this phenomenon in natural turquoise beads is almost zero. Fracture observation: The turquoise fissures treated by Zakri will have color enrichment, not only in the fissures, but also in the edge of the fissures. The trace element test is mainly judged by detecting the change of potassium content. The potassium content is too high, and most of them are processed by the Zakri method. The above has summarized some optimization and identification methods of turquoise on the market. If there is something wrong, you can point out and discuss together. The next article will tell you about the fraud and identification of turquoise. .